Constitution of the People’s Republic of China
Article 4 All ethnic groups of the People’s Republic of China are equal. The state shall protect the lawful rights and interests of all ethnic minorities and uphold and promote relations of equality, unity, mutual assistance and harmony among all ethnic groups. Discrimination against and oppression of any ethnic group are prohibited; any act that undermines the unity of ethnic groups or creates divisions among them is prohibited.
The state shall, in light of the characteristics and needs of all ethnic minorities, assist all ethnic minority areas in accelerating their economic and cultural development.
All areas inhabited by ethnic minorities shall practice regional autonomy, establish autonomous organs, and exercise the power to self-govern. All ethnic autonomous areas are inseparable parts of the People’s Republic of China.
All ethnic groups shall have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages and to preserve or reform their own traditions and customs.
|第二十八条 国家维护社会秩序，镇压叛国和其他危害国家安全的犯罪活动，制裁危害社会治安、破坏社会主义经济和其他犯罪的活动，惩办和改造犯罪分子。||Article 28 The state shall maintain public order, suppress treason and other criminal activities that jeopardize national security, punish criminal activities, including those that endanger public security or harm the socialist economy, and punish and reform criminals.|
Fundamental Rights and Obligations of Citizens
Article 35 Citizens of the People’s Republic of China shall enjoy freedom of speech, the press, assembly, association, procession and demonstration.
Article 36 Citizens of the People’s Republic of China shall enjoy freedom of religious belief.
No state organ, social organization or individual shall coerce citizens to believe in or not to believe in any religion, nor shall they discriminate against citizens who believe in or do not believe in any religion.
The state shall protect normal religious activities. No one shall use religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the state’s education system.
Religious groups and religious affairs shall not be subject to control by foreign forces.
Article 41 Citizens of the People’s Republic of China shall have the right to criticize and make suggestions regarding any state organ or state employee, and have the right to file with relevant state organs complaints, charges or reports against any state organ or state employee for violations of the law or dereliction of duty, but they shall not fabricate or distort facts to make false accusations.
The state organ concerned must ascertain the facts concerning the complaints, charges or reports made by citizens and take responsibility for their handling. No one shall suppress such complaints, charges or reports or take retaliatory action.
Persons who have suffered losses resulting from infringement of their civil rights by any state organ or state employee shall have the right to receive compensation in accordance with the provisions of law.
Article 49 Marriage, families, mothers and children shall be protected by the state.
Both husband and wife shall have the obligation to practice family planning.
Parents shall have the obligation to raise and educate their minor children; adult children shall have the obligation to support and assist their parents.
Infringement of the freedom of marriage is prohibited; mistreatment of senior citizens, women and children is prohibited.
|第五十一条 中华人民共和国公民在行使自由和权利的时候，不得损害国家的、社会的、集体的利益和其他公民的合法的自由和权利。||Article 51 When exercising their freedoms and rights, citizens of the People’s Republic of China shall not undermine the interests of the state, society or collectives, or infringe upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens.|
Article 130 Except in special circumstances as prescribed by law, all cases in the people’s courts shall be tried in public. The accused shall have the right to defense.
Article 131 The people’s courts shall, in accordance with the provisions of law, independently exercise adjudicatory power, and shall not be subject to interference from any administrative organ, social organization or individual.