Requirements to wear a cloth face mask, by country is evolving. Starting in Asia, acceptance has spread worldwide. This is an evolving situation, with more countries mandating use with time and social acceptance.
Maskenpflicht (mask duty) in German
Government Guidance Articles
- EU: Austria: Austria, in a shift, requires mask-wearing in supermarkets to cut pandemic’s spread
- Czech Republic: Czechs get to work making masks after government decree: Slovakia and the Czech Republic require masks in public
“The Czech Republic is one of the few in Europe that has significantly slowed down the spread of the virus,” the narrator says. “The main difference is that everyone who has to leave their house has to wear a mask…
“The students are making hundreds and hundreds of masks,” said Alice Klouzkova, an assistant and teacher at the academy’s fashion design studio. “Most of them have sewing machines at home and are happy to work with their hands. It’s important that the material is made with 100% cotton so it can be sterilised.””
- Germany, Jena: In ‘Big Adjustment,’ Some European Countries Push For Residents To Wear Masks
German Chancellor Angela Merkel said Wednesday that masks should be worn on public transport and in shops as Germany cautiously begins to ease curbs imposed to halt contagion of the coronavirus pandemic.
“It is recommended that masks be used in public transport and while shopping,” Merkel told journalists after talks with regional leaders from Germany’s 16 states.
Jena, a city in eastern Germany, announced this week that within several days it will be compulsory to wear a mask in supermarkets and on public transit — but the German government as a whole has issued no such recommendation.
- Germany: Germany recommends face masks in shops and public transport
New rules have come into force legally requiring most people in Germany to wear face masks on public transport, long-distance trains and in shops…
A poll by the Kantar market research institute found that acceptance for mask wearing was extremely high, with 97% of those asked saying they supported the rule and recognised the importance of keeping it to help tackle coronavirus.
- Czech Republic, Slovakia and Bosnia-Herzegovina: Should all Americans be wearing face masks to protect against coronavirus? Trump, Fauci are closer to saying yes: The Czech Republic, Slovakia and Bosnia-Herzegovina now require people to wear masks in public, while Austria requires their use in grocery stores.
- Italy, Lombardi: Lombardy insists on face masks outside homes to stop Covid-19: Extremely late, after so much carnage, but better than never
Authorities in Lombardy, the Italian region worst affected by coronavirus, have introduced a law obliging citizens to wear face masks when they go outside…
Lombardy’s president, Attilio Fontana, announcing the new law there, said people should “cover their mouths and noses” with a simple scarf, saying it would help “prevent you from spreading the virus if you happen to be a carrier”…
The Lombardy law will be in place at least until 13 April, when Italy’s lockdown is due to expire.
- France: Abrupt reversals on face mask policy raise new questions
France’s Académie Nationale de Médecine (Academy of Medicine) announced Friday that a mask should be compulsory during outings both during and after the current lockdown.
- France sets €135 fine for no mask on public transport: France makes mask wearing compulsory for public transit and school buses, effective 2020 May 11
- Britain UK: Face coverings to become mandatory on public transport: From 15 June, face coverings will be required while using public transport in England.
- US: California Department of Public Health: page does not respond
City of San Diego:
4/2 Press Conference Updates:
Mandatory non-medical-grade masks to be worn by workers at businesses that interact with the public including grocery stores, pharmacies, and gas stations source
The order will make it mandatory for businesses that interact with the public to use cloth face coverings for their employees starting Saturday; that includes grocery stores, pharmacies, gas stations and restaurants…
The general public will not be required to wear facial coverings but will be urged to do so when out in public for essential activities, according to the new order.
Medical-grade masks should not be used but homemade masks, bandanas, scarves and neck gaiters are acceptable since the items can be washed and reused. source
- Los Angeles: City of L.A. guidance on wearing face coverings in public
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the City of Los Angeles has issued new guidance to L.A. residents on the importance of wearing face coverings in public…
Early data suggests that many who are infected with COVID-19 are not symptomatic, which is why we recommend all members of the public wear cloth face coverings when leaving the house for essential activities.
- california, Orange CountyBusiness owners and some government officials face anger and threats over face mask requirements.
When Dr. Nichole Quick, the health officer in Orange County, Calif., issued an order requiring all residents to wear masks when in public last month, the backlash was swift — and personal…
By last week, Dr. Quick had resigned as county health officer, and county officials had reversed the order, making face coverings optional in the county of 3 million, where new reported cases and hospitalizations have trended slightly upward…
The abrupt turnaround is perhaps one of the most pronounced examples of the backlash facing officials who promote face mask requirements, as face masks increasingly become a flash point. Support for face masks has often fallen along partisan lines, despite federal health recommendations and recent research that suggest that face masks could be critical to stopping the spread of the virus. Mr. Trump has largely declined to wear a mask in public.
Officials and business owners alike have faced pushback. In the Houston area, the county judge was sued over an order requiring face masks. Costco faced threats of boycotts over a similar requirement for its stores. And in Stillwater, Okla., north of Oklahoma City, an order requiring residents to wear face masks inside stores and restaurants was quickly rescinded last month, after an uprising among customers.
- California orders people to wear masks in most indoor spaces
California on Thursday started requiring people throughout the state to wear masks in most indoor settings and outdoors when distancing isn’t possible as the coronavirus continues to spread…
The state order requires people to wear masks when inside or in line for any indoor public spaces, in health care settings like hospitals and pharmacies, while waiting for or riding public transportation, and in outdoor spaces where it’s not possible to stay six feet (1.8 meters) apart from others.
- New York City: Face Coverings:Frequently Asked Questions
The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene recommends that all New Yorkers wear a face covering when outside of their hometo help stop the spread ofcoronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19).
- New York State: New York Orders Residents to Wear Masks in Public
Imposing a stricter measure to control the spread of the coronavirus, Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo said on Wednesday that he would start requiring people in New York to wear masks or face coverings in public whenever social distancing was not possible.
The order will take effect on Friday and will apply to people who are unable to keep six feet away from others in public settings, such as on a bus or subway, on a crowded sidewalk or inside a grocery store.
- Maryland: Marylanders are required to wear a face mask. How do you make one? And other frequently asked mask questions.
Officials in Maryland will begin enforcing the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s recent recommendation that people wear cloth face coverings over their noses and mouths when they enter public places such as grocery stores to slow the spread of the new coronavirus.
- New Jersey: New Jersey orders residents to wear masks in grocery stores, N.J.’s new coronavirus rules for grocery shopping. Masks, store limits, everything you need to know.
- Pennsylvania: Order of the Secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Health Directing Public Health Safety Measures for Businesses Permitted to Maintain In-person Operations
B.In addition to the above, the following measures apply to businesses, other than health care providers, that serve the public within a building or a defined area:…
(6)require all customers to wear masks while on premises,and deny entry to individuals not wearing masks, unless the business is providing medication, medical supplies, or food, in which case the business must provide alternative methods of pick-up or delivery of such goods;however, individuals who cannot wear a mask due to a medical condition(including children under the age of 2 years per CDC guidance)may enter the premises and are not required to provide documentation of such medical condition;
- Illinois: Guidance on the Use of Masks by the General Public
All Illinoisans should wear as mask or face covering when they must leave their home or report to work for essential operations and they either cannot or it is impractical to maintain 6 feet of physical distance between themselves and others. Examples include:
- Shopping at essential businesses, like grocery stores or pharmacies,
- Picking up food from the drive thru or curbside pickup,
- While visiting your health care provider,
- Traveling on public transportation,
- Interacting with customers, clients, or coworkers at essential businesses,
- Performing essential services for state and local government agencies, such as laboratory testing, where close interactions with other people are unavoidable, and
- When feeling sick, coughing, or sneezing.
Probably the best press release of any government body so far. Clear information, with examples, and the reasoning behind the requirement.
- Florida: Florida does not have a mandate by the Governor of Florida specific to facial coverings. This is covered by each individual city and thus varies.
- Florida, Palm Beach: Palm Beach, Order No. 2020-004:
All other persons physically present in any public place in Palm Beach County are strongly urged to wear facial coverings as defined by the CDC
- Florida, Monroe: Monroe County
5. Covering of Nose and Mouth. Except as provided herein, effective at 12:01 a.m. on May 04, 2020:
a Except as provided for in paragraph 3g, all employees and customers of businesses shann be required to wear a form of covering over their nose and mouth at all times while inside such business. All individuals providing delivery services shall wear a form of covering over their nose and moutn while making deliveries.
- Florida, Miami-Dade: Miami-Dade
1. Persons working in or visiting grocery stores, restaurants, pharmacies, construction sites, public transit vehicles, vehiclesfor hire and locations where social distancing measures are not possible shall wear facial coverings as defined by the CDC
- Florida, North Miami: North Miami
Section 1.Covering of Nose and Mouth.
a) Except as provided herein, all employees and customers of grocery stores, hardware stores, pharmacies and restaurants arerequiredto wear a form of covering over their noses and mouths,at all times,whileinside the grocery store, hardware store, pharmacy or restaurant facility. All individuals providing delivery services shall wear a form of covering over their noses and mouths while making deliveries.
- Florida, Miami Beach: Miami Beach, original doc
ALL employees and patrons visiting essential retail and commercial businesses must wear a form of covering over their nose and mouth at all times. If you are visiting one of our open parks/greenspaces and/or beachwalks/baywalks, you must wear a face covering at all times, unless engaging in strenuous physical activity or exercise. This does not apply to children under the age of 2 or person’s who have trouble breathing due to chronic pre-existing conditions. All individuals providing delivery services to the public must wear a form of covering over their nose and mouth while making deliveries.
- Florida, Jacksonville, Duval Jacksonville changes course, issues face mask mandate
The order that goes into effect at 5 p.m. Monday will be for indoor locations only, a city spokeswoman said. It will not be required outdoors, for anyone under 2 years old, for anyone with breathing problems or while at a table at a restaurant.
City officials said the beaches area is included in the mandate and masks are required anywhere inside where people are unable to socially distance.
- Florida, Broward BROWARD COUNTY ADMINISTRATOR’S EMERGENCY ORDER 20-07
Section 1.All persons who are providing essential services, as defined by the Governor’s Executive prder 20-91, as amended, shall wear a facial covering during in-person interactions with the public. Members of the public shall use a facial covering when obtaining essential services.
- Florida, Gadsden Gadsden County reinstates mandatory mask-wearing order, effective 2020 May 22
- Colorado, Denver: Wearing & Making Face Coverings
As of Wednesday, May 6, 2020, face coverings are mandatory while inside of or waiting in line to enter any retail or commercial business, or any location or facility offering government of health care services, and waiting for or riding on public transportation.
- Texas: Gov. Greg Abbott orders Texans in most counties to wear masks in public
The order requires Texans living in counties more than 20 coronavirus cases to wear a face covering over the nose and mouth while in a business or other building open to the public, as well as outdoor public spaces, whenever social distancing is not possible.
- Texas, Bexar County As Cases Surge, Arizona Switches Course and Lets Cities Require Masks
Bexar County, which includes San Antonio, is ordering businesses to require employees and customers to wear face masks when they are unable to observe social distancing. County Judge Nelson Wolff issued the order Wednesday, a day after the county confirmed 436 new cases, its biggest single-day increase.
- Texas, Dallas SUPPLEMENTALORDER OF COUNTY JUDGE CLAY JENKINSON CONTINUING REQUIREMENTS AFTER EXPIRATION OF STAY HOME, STAY SAFEDATE ORDER ISSUED: June 19, 2020
The Health and Safety Policy must require, at a minimum, that all employees or visitors to the commercial entity’s business premises or other facilities wear face coverings in an area or while performing an activity which will necessarily involve close contact or proximity to co-workers or the public where six feet of separation is not feasible…
ll people 10 years or older shall wear a face covering over their nose and mouth when in a public place where it is difficult to keep six feet away from other people or working in areas that involve close proximity with other coworkers.
- Texas, El Paso COVID-19 UpdateCity Reports Three Deaths,AmendsDirectives and Expands Testing
are amending the current Local Emergency Directive to make face coverings mandatory…
All individuals over the age of two (2), are required to wear some form of face covering over their nose and mouth, while outside of their home or residence.
- Michigan: Executive Order 2020-110 (COVID-19) (June 1, 2020): starting 2020 June 08
4. Any individual who leaves his or her home or place of residence must:
b. Wear a face covering over his or her nose and mouth—such as a homemade mask, scarf, bandana, or handkerchief—when in any enclosed public space, unless the individual is unable medically to tolerate a face covering.
1. An individual may be required to temporarily remove a face covering upon entering an enclosed public space for identification purposes. An individual may also remove a face covering to eat or drink when seated at a restaurant or bar.
2. Businesses and building owners, and those authorized to act on their behalf, are permitted to deny entry or access to any individual who refuses to comply with the rule in this subsection (b). Businesses and building owners will not be subject to a claim that they have violated the covenant of quiet enjoyment, to a claim of frustration of purpose, or to similar claims for denying entry or access to a person who refuses to comply with this subsection (b).
- Maine: Governor Mills Extends Maine’s Stay At Home Order: April 29, 2020
Additionally, and as Governor Mills also announced yesterday, the order requires Maine people to wear cloth face coverings in public places where physical distancing is difficult to maintain, as recommended by the U.S. CDC. The order identifies public settings as: indoor spaces that are accessible to the public such as grocery stores, retail stores, pharmacies and health care facilities; outdoor spaces such as playgrounds, busy parking lots, and other areas such as lines for take-out service where the public typically gathers in a smaller area; and public transportation such as a taxi, Uber, Lyft, ride-sharing or similar service; ferry, bus, or train; and any semi-enclosed transit stop or waiting area… This requirement is effective Friday, May 1st.
- Delaware: Governor Carney Requires Delawareans to Wear Face Coverings in Public Settings
Under Governor Carney’s modified order, businesses must also take certain steps to keep their employees and customers safe.
By 8:00 a.m. on Friday, May 1, businesses must:
- Require employees to wear a face covering while working in areas open to the public and in areas where coming within 6 feet of other staff is likely.
- Provide, at the business’ expense, face coverings and hand sanitizer for their employees.
- Deny entry to individuals who do not have a face covering – or if one is not available for them.
- If any business denying entry is providing medication, medical supplies, or food, the business must provide alternate methods of pickup or delivery.
- Massachusetts Wear a Mask in Public
Governor Baker has issued an Order effective Wednesday, May 6 requiring face masks or cloth face coverings in public places where social distancing is not possible. This applies to both indoor and outdoor spaces.
Any person who is in a place open to the public in the Commonwealth, when unable to maintain a distance of approximately six feet from every other person, shall cover their mouth and nose with a mask or cloth face-covering. Masks are required at all times when:
- Inside or waiting in line outside of grocery stores, pharmacies, and other retail stores;
- Providing or using the services of any taxi, car, livery, ride-sharing, or similar service;
- On any form of public transit, including train or bus; and
- In an enclosed or semi-enclosed transit stop or waiting area.
- Arizona: Phoenix Phoenix Requires Face Coverings
The declaration goes into effect on Saturday, June 20, 2020 at 6 a.m. and requires every person in the city of Phoenix, ages six and over, shall cover their nose and mouth whenever they are away from their home or residence and within six feet of another person who is not a member of their family or household.
Any business whose employees cannot observe physical distancing, must require face coverings; including those that interact with the public. Businesses also have the right to refuse service to anyone not wearing a face covering.
- Arizona Tuscon, Pima County: Supervisors enact Countywide face mask rule
The Pima County Board of Supervisors June 19 voted 3-2 to enact a countywide public health protection resolution requiring the wearing of face coverings when in public if 6 feet of physical distancing cannot be maintained. The Board took the action on the advice of the Back to Business Road to Recovery subcommittee, which is comprised of public health experts and physicians who specifically noted their concern about the recent surge in positive COVID-19 cases in the county.
The rule is effective immediately and applies to everyone over the age of 5. It’s applicable in all public places, which are defined as: “[A]ny place, indoor or outdoor, that is open to the public and includes, but is not limited to, businesses or other establishments where people assemble or members of the general public may enter; offices; public buildings, highways and parks, and public transportation including taxis and ride sharing.”
- Arizona, Scottsdale: Masks mandatory in Scottsdale beginning June 19
…The proclamation requires people to cover nose and mouth within all public accommodations within the city, which includes grocery stores, pharmacies, restaurants and bars, gyms and similar facilities, retail stores, special events and public transit. Businesses that interact with the public must require employees to wear face coverings as well.
- Alabama, Montgomery Executive order
Effective at 5 PM on Friday June 19, 2020 face coverings or masks are required in public places in the City of Montgomery
…Be it ordered by the Mayor of Montgomery that face coverings or “masks” shall be required in public places within the city to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus disease, known as CoVid-19.
- District of Columbia: Mayor’s Order 2020-066, May 13, 2020
- Kansas: Governor Laura Kelly Announces Masks Must be Worn Statewide
Governor Laura Kelly today announced that she will sign an Executive Order requiring that most Kansans in a public space must wear a mask, beginning 12:01 a.m. Friday, July 3…
Under the order, most Kansans must wear masks in stores and shops, restaurants, and in any situation in which social distancing of 6 feet cannot be maintained, including outside.
- Louisiana: Gov. Edwards Orders Statewide Mask Mandate, Closes Bars to On Premises Consumption as COVID-19 Continues to Spread Across Louisiana
- Nevada: Gov. Sisolak announces mandatory face covering policy in public
Per this requirement, anyone in any public space throughout the State, including visitors, will need to wear a mask. This includes using public transportation, public facing work environments, when patronizing businesses, or interacting with others in any generally publicly accessible space.
- Washington State: Guidance on Cloth Face Coverings from the Washington State Department of Health
- Canada: Recommendation Regarding the Use of Cloth Face Coverings, Especially in Areas of Significant Community-Based Transmission
In light of this new evidence, CDC recommends wearing cloth face coverings in public settings where other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain (e.g., grocery stores and pharmacies) especially in areas of significant community-based transmission.
- Canada: Tam offers new advice: wear a non-medical mask when shopping or using public transit: Finally, only after the WHO and CDC
- Canada’s top doctor says non-medical masks can help stop the spread of COVID-19
- Canada’s medical chief finally tells public that masks can help prevent Covid-19 spreading
Therefore, we will no longer discourage people from wearing masks . Wearing a mask may help to protect others, in case you have the virus but don’t know it. This is so that you keep your droplets to yourself – when you sneeze or speak or cough. It can also protect yourself a little better, especially if you are elderly, or vulnerable because of pre-existing health conditions.
- Legault hopes Quebeckers ‘make a habit’ of wearing masks, but won’t make it mandatory yet: Quebec is planning for mandatory masks at least for public transit.
Quebec Premier François Legault says there is no legal barrier to making wearing masks mandatory in some locations, such as public transit, but the province first needs to make sure face coverings are more widely available.
Quebec is the first Canadian jurisdiction where the idea of mandating the use of masks in public, to curb the spread of the novel coronavirus, has been discussed in such explicit detail.
Mr. Legault said wearing masks in public will be a necessary step in a broader return to regular activities because increased public transit ridership would make it impossible to maintain physical-distancing rules…
One opposition leader, Pascal Bérubé of the Parti Québécois, urged the premier to make masks mandatory in Montreal’s transit system and public places.
- Ontario: Ontario Announces Additional Workplaces that Can Reopen: Reopening for 2020 May 19
…the public should continue to adhere to public health measures, including practising physical distancing or wearing a face covering when physical distancing is difficult or not possible…
- Ottawa: Ottawa to become 1st Canadian city to make masks ‘mandatory’ on transit: Effective 2020 June 15
- Ottawa: effective 2020 Jul 07
As Medical Officer of Health, the following are my instructions, pursuant to O. Reg 263/20 s.4(2) (or as current), to all employersand persons responsible for businesses or organizations within the City of Ottawa, effective July 7, 2020 as of 12:01 am:1.
(1) Every Operatoriof an Enclosed Public Spaceiishall adopt a policy to ensure that no member of the public is permitted to enter or remain in the public areas of the Enclosed Public Space unless he or she is wearing a Maskiiiin a manner that covers their nose, mouth and chin
- Toronto: Toronto to make face coverings mandatory on public transit, will hand out 1M masks to riders: Proposed effective 2020 July 02, still requires approval
- Toronto: City council votes to make masks mandatory in public in Toronto: Effective 2020 Jul 07
- Toronto: Mandatory Mask or Face Covering Bylaw
- Guelph, Wellington: Masks must be worn in Guelph or Wellington County, medical officer of health says: Commercial establishments must prohibit people from entering if they’re not wearing masks. Dr. Nicola Mercer of Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health issued an order this morning that says commercial establishments must make sure people entering and remaining on their premises wear a mask or face covering.
- Mississauga: https://www.mississauga.com/news-story/10019616-mississauga-to-require-face-masks-on-miway-transit-but-rule-unenforceable-city-staff-says/Mississauga to require face masks on MiWay transit, but rule ‘unenforceable’ city staff says
- Ontario: Kingston Kingston issues face-mask order after COVID-19 outbreak at nail salon
Dr. Moore issued a public-health order on Friday making face masks mandatory in all indoor public places in the Kingston region, including grocery stores, restaurants, hair and nail salons, and on public transit. Businesses can be fined up to $5,000 a day for violating the order.
- New Brunswick: New Brunswick eases COVID-19 restrictions, but not precautions
…face masks will be required in public if physical distancing cannot be maintained.
- WHO: World Health Organisation reverses course, now supports wearing face masks in public
- WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 – 5 June 2020
Here is what’s new:
- In areas with widespread transmission, WHO advises medical masks for all people working in clinical areas of a health facility, not only workers dealing with patients with COVID-19…
- Second, in areas with community transmission, we advise that people aged 60 years or over, or those with underlying conditions, should wear a medical mask in situations where physical distancing is not possible….
- In light of evolving evidence, WHO advises that governments should encourage the general public to wear masks where there is widespread transmission and physical distancing is difficult, such as on public transport, in shops or in other confined or crowded environments.
These two new additional requirements, that all medical staff wear masks who are in clinical areas, as well as all people 60yo and above wear medical masks, will increase demand for medical masks.
Based on this new research, WHO advises that fabric masks should consist of at least three layers of different material. Details of which materials we recommend for each layer are in the guidelines.
- Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19
The ideal combination of material for non-medical masks should include three layers as follows: 1) an innermost layer of a hydrophilic material (e.g. cotton or cotton blends); 2), an outermost layer made of hydrophobic material (e.g., polypropylene, polyester, or their blends) which may limit external contamination from penetration through to the wearer’s nose and mouth; 3) a middle hydrophobic layer of synthetic non-woven material such as polyproplylene or a cotton layer which may enhance filtration or retain droplets.
- Singapore: When should I wear a mask?
Wear a mask if you are out and in close contact with others. Here’s where to collect your reusable mask
- Singapore: Singapore makes face masks compulsory as coronavirus infections surge to 3,252 amid mass testing of migrant workers
Prime Minister Lee, in his address to nation on 3 Apr on COVID-19 situation
- Israel: Israelis required to wear face masks when out in public
Israelis are required to wear faces masks when venturing outside in accordance with a new Health Ministry directive that came into effect on Sunday morning. The measure was approved by the government this past week.
Under the new rules, masks must be worn when leaving home and should cover the nose and the mouth…
The masks can be homemade, makeshift, or bought, according to the authorities. The order had previously been issued as a recommendation.
- Turkey: Turkey Orders All Citizens to Wear Masks as Infections Rise
- India: New Delhi, Mumbai, Uttar Pradash Major Indian cities make mask-wearing compulsory amid virus fears
- Every Hong Kong resident to get a reusable mask as city turns corner in pandemic fight to start gradual easing of Covid-19 curbs: Reusable masks with an inner replaceable filter
- Nigeria, Lagos: Face mask use compulsory in public from April 25 in Lagos state /update 17
On Sunday, April 25, Lagos state Governor Babajide Sanwo-Olu announced that the wearing of face masks in public has been made mandatory statewide in order to prevent the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The state has been placed under complete containment since the end of March.
- Qatar: Qatar enforces mandatory masks or prison
Qatar on Sunday began enforcing the world’s toughest penalties of up to three years’ imprisonment for failing to wear masks in public…
- More Americans Should Probably Wear Masks for Protection
- Chinese scientist advises people in Europe, US to wear face masks in public
- Coronavirus: should I make my own mask? How home-made ones may help stop Covid-19 spread
- US starts to change its thinking on wearing protective masks
- End Canada’s face mask misdirection. It is preposterous
- COVID-19: WHY WE SHOULD ALL WEAR MASKS — THERE IS NEW SCIENTIFIC RATIONALE
Absence of evidence (of protection) is not evidence of absence…
Given that the upper respiratory tract is the major site for SARS-Cov-2 entry into human tissues, wearing simple face masks which exert a barrier function that blocks those big projectile droplets that land in the nose or throat may substantially reduce the production rate R
- A collection of face mask articles in Google Docs, which might be busy
- To mask or not to mask: WHO makes U-turn while US, Singapore abandon pandemic advice and tell citizens to start wearing masks
- Is A Homemade Mask Effective? And What’s The Best Way To Wear One?
- Sew much demand: Suddenly, homemade masks are a booming cottage industry
- White House Debates How Far to Go on Face Mask Guidelines
- Coronavirus FAQs: Is A Homemade Mask Effective? And What’s The Best Way To Wear One?
- Bow ties to face masks: German firms shift gears in coronavirus crisis
- Calls grow for Germany-wide use of face masks
- Theresa Tam issues new guidance on the wearing of masks, so here’s what you need to know
The CDC recommendation came after new evidence that there is significant transmission by people not showing any symptoms of COVID-19 – as many as 25 per cent of those infected, CDC director Robert Redfield told Atlanta’s WABE 90.1 FM radio station in an interview last week. As well, he said those who do become symptomatic appear to shed the virus “probably up to 48 hours” before showing symptoms.
“This helps explain how rapidly this virus continues to spread across the country, because we have asymptomatic transmitters and we have individuals who are transmitting 48 hours before they become symptomatic,” Dr. Redfield said.
- Advice on masks is changing as coronavirus knowledge evolves
- Dr. John Campbell’s To mask or not to mask: explains the continuum of projected breathing, cough or sneeze releases both droplet and aerosolized virus, thus a mask is very useful for controlling this
- What We Need to Understand About Asymptomatic Carriers if We’re Going to Beat Coronavirus
In recent days, there’s been a new enthusiasm for masks, with many calling for widespread use among the general public. The idea there is that masks could help prevent droplets from traveling far, particularly from an asymptomatic person who doesn’t yet realize they’re infected.
Leung, from the University of Hong Kong, is a fan of this idea. “Wear a mask, preferably universally in public spaces,” he said, when I asked him how to solve the problem of asymptomatic transmission.
- N95, surgical face mask or DIY? Experts say ‘something better than nothing’
“The other use of masks is to stop the spread of the illness by carriers of the virus, referred as ‘source control’, who in the case of coronavirus may well be asymptomatic,” Chughtai said.
“If a high rate of transmission is ongoing in the community, like in the US now, people should use masks, because we know there is a high level of asymptomatic cases. For source control, you can use any mask – even cloth masks are fine.” source
Experts warn, however, that cloth coverings should be properly fitted snugly to the face and they should be washed after use.
- Why that about-face on wearing masks is a problem
We may lack some gold-standard study to support general masking, but if that’s the standard of evidence we’ve been waiting for—well, I have some bad news about social distancing.
We are engaged in a massive, global experiment in how to curb the worst effects of a pandemic. Almost every measure we’re employing to that end is theoretical.
- What’s the Best Material for a Mask?
- The Face Mask Debate Reveals a Scientific Double Standard: No one complained about the lack of evidence for 20-second hand-washing. So why did we treat face masks differently?
- How NOT to Wear a Mask: Wearing a face mask takes some getting used to. To get the most benefit, you need to avoid these common mistakes.
- Coronavirus kills some people and hardly affects others: How is that possible?
This new understanding about the role of “silent spreaders” is why the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other health authorities are now suggesting that people wear masks when they leave the house. The recommendation is primarily designed to keep asymptomatic people from unwittingly spreading a disease they may not even know they have.
- Mask-Wearing, Common in Asia, Spreads in the West
- The Social Distancer’s Guide to Urban Etiquette and Ethics
There’s been a lot of mixed messaging on masks…wearing even homemade face coverings on trips outside can have multiple benefits: If worn correctly, covering your mouth and nose can prevent you from contracting the virus, spreading it, and touching your face. Even the CDC has since revised its skepticism, issuing a national recommendation on April 3 for everyone in the U.S. to start wearing them in public…
And here’s another thing. You know all these protocols we’ve been covering about staying six feet apart? Well, some experts say droplets from strong coughs and sneezes can travel 20 feet. So if you just distance and you don’t wear a mask, well, you do the math.
- Germany eyes some normality after bringing coronavirus outbreak ‘under control’
There is no universal requirement to wear protective face masks but instead a strong recommendation to do so.
- In Japan, dirty face masks spark online backlash against prime minister
- The TRUTH about FACE MASKS (KN95) for CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19): Good info about various types of face masks, what to watch out for, getting product from China, and how we can all encourage domestic manufacturers to produce face masks
- Nose is a point of entry for coronavirus as West reinforces early Chinese research
- ‘We’re dogs without tails’: how face masks affect human interaction – and what to do about it
- Masks protect the wearer, too – and lower our risk for contracting COVID-19
- Mike Pence flouts hospital policy and goes maskless in Mayo Clinic visit
On April 13, Mayo Clinic announced that all patients and visitors would need to wear a face covering or mask to slow the spread of Covid-19, based on advice from the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. According to that CDC guidance, wearing masks in public can lower the risks of transmitting the virus, including from people who show no symptoms of the virus.
- Airborne Coronavirus Detected in Wuhan Hospitals
The paper did not state whether people passing through those areas were wearing masks, which would block much of the virus a sick person breathes out.
- ‘We follow the science’: UK government resists public face mask rules in coronavirus battle
- In a pop-up lab in Beijing, this firm is trying to clean up China’s murky face mask industry
- How the face mask became the world’s most coveted commodity
- African factories in race to produce face masks, ventilators as health crisis worsens
- Poll shows less than half of Canadians wear masks or gloves when out in public
- Face masks become China’s key back-to-school accessory
- Researchers are working on reusable face masks to protect against coronavirus
- What to know about masks as Canada slowly emerges from lockdown
- To mask or not to mask? World leaders scrutinised over face coverings
- Montreal’s transit authority strongly recommends passengers wear face masks
- DOCTOR REVEALS TRUTH ABOUT MASKS: Why Healthcare Workers Are Catching COVID-19
- After Covid-19 ordeal, tenor Warren Mok regrets not wearing a mask – ‘I think that’s how I got sick’
- China’s Coronavirus Back-to-Work Lessons: Masks and Vigilance
Many of the new workplace rules are obvious: Use disinfectants and masks and keep your distance from colleagues…
“Nowadays, we definitely still wear face masks,” Mr. Zhang said. “But we can have a chat.”
- Help! My Mask Fogs My Glasses
- The future is masked
Dr. Humphries says, “How do you let people know it’s safe to leave their homes? Masks play an important role in that, and they played an important role in 1918. We see medical officers at the time saying that if wearing a mask makes you feel safe, and makes you feel like you can leave your house, then in many ways it doesn’t matter if the mask works or not. It makes you feel safe. You can go on with your life.’’
- Masking fears: SARS and the politics of public health in China
In the Western media, the mask was often implicitly – and sometimes explicitly – pitted against ideas of transparency, truth, sincerity, and authenticity.
- Why I don’t feel safe wearing a face mask: I’m a Black man living in this world. I want to stay alive, but I also want to stay alive.
- Hamster research proof effectiveness of masks ‘huge’ in Covid-19 battle, Hong Kong scientists say
- Asians in the US least likely to get coronavirus infection, data suggests
- Mask handout: another example of a government that doesn’t listen, giving people what they don’t want or need
- This review of HK’s CUMask+ is interesting. Free CuMask+ From The Hongkong Government Unboxing And Review The reviewer opens the mask, shipped in an envelope, reads the instructions, but inadvertently puts the mask on upside down. This is an interesting UI issue, as the mask seems to work both ways.
The CUMask+ has an inner pocket similar in design to the CraftPassion mask, where the inner filter material is placed. With 6 layers, I wonder how difficult it will be to breath.
- ‘No point in lipstick’: Japan’s cosmetics sales drop as face masks become obligatory
- Mask-wearing is becoming a social norm, but one to practise alongside other precautions
- Canada Goose lays off 125 workers: Retools to make PPE
The company said last month it was planning to reopen its Canadian facilities to make personal protective equipment (PPE), adding that, at full capacity, as many as 900 employees across Canada were going to be working to produce PPEs.
- Scientific evidence for mask wearing: Dr John Campbell citing the HK study by Dr. Yuen Kwok-yung, requiring 80% of people to wear masks.
- Stockpile masks at home in case of emergency, China urges families: China recommends face masks as part of family emergency preparedness
- The Most Patriotic Thing You Can Do Right Now
We also know that our own decisions, as individuals, will be vital in helping to protect our neighbors. Until there is a vaccine, which could be years from now, the simple acts of wearing a mask and practicing social distancing may be the most reliable ways to stem the spread of the disease and save more lives.
- If 80% of Americans Wore Masks, COVID-19 Infections Would Plummet, New Study Says
- The great mask debate: Which of these COVID-19 face covering is right for you?
- As imports hit roadblock, when can Canada make its own N95 masks?
- Can’t avoid transit? Here’s a guide to safely taking the TTC amid the pandemic
Once on the system, the TTC says it is “strongly recommended” that riders wear masks or cloth face coverings, particularly when it’s not possible to keep your distance.
“The use of face coverings while riding is prudent, and we strongly agree with Toronto Public Health’s recommendation for people to wear face coverings when physical distancing cannot be maintained,” DeToma said.
Mask use isn’t mandatory. Agency officials have said the TTC doesn’t have the ability to enforce a rule requiring every transit rider to cover their face, and any law compelling mask use would have to come from government.
- Everything you need to know about face masks
- How to Maintain Social Distance as the U.S. Reopens
In fact, we’ve learned that sneezes and coughs can actually amplify beyond the six feet, but, in fact, that masks are really effective…
Understand that masks can really help, I think, a lot more than we understood at first with this condition, because of their containment capacity…
But if you are going to a crowded beach, a crowded park, walking down the street where people are talking and breathing and coughing and sneezing, you should wear a mask…
The majority of transmission is happening in indoor, poorly ventilated environments commonly used by multiple people who are coming in and out. And I think that’s where the focus of our transmission reduction should be…
You can’t declare trust by fiat. You have to build it. People have to have the sense that going to your place of business, resuming their daily life, will not entail an undue, overwhelming risk for them or their families. The only way to do that is to have reasonable and sensible and approachable policies—that enough people maintain the masks, the hygiene, the distancing, to make it possible for us to actually resume our economic lives.
- What It’s Like to Wear a Mask in the South
Above all, I’m trying to understand why wearing a mask — which is meant only to protect the most vulnerable among us and slow the spread of the virus to everyone else — has become the political equivalent of wearing a bumper sticker on your face. It makes me weep to think about it: Our one ready-to-hand tool for getting this country back to normal as quickly and as safely as possible has become yet another symbol of the seemingly insurmountable schism between Americans. It’s enough to break a true patriot’s heart…
“On my way to Charlotte, I had to stop at a convenience store for the restroom. I walked far around one employee on a smoke break outside the store. I was the only person of perhaps 20 inside who was masked and was clearly being given the stink eye. I brought a drink to the counter to pay and the employee behind the plexiglass screen asked me if that was all. I said yes, and he said, ‘Take it.’ I was like, ‘Oh thanks, happy Mother’s Day?’ And he said, ‘No, your mask is scaring us.’”
- All Pearson passengers, staff now required to wear face masks
- It’s Not Whether You Were Exposed to the Virus. It’s How Much.
Apart from avoiding crowded indoor spaces, the most effective thing people can do is wear masks, all of the experts said. Even if masks don’t fully shield you from droplets loaded with virus, they can cut down the amount you receive, and perhaps bring it below the infectious dose.
“This is not a virus for which hand washing seems like it will be enough,” Dr. Rabinowitz said. “We have to limit crowds, we have to wear masks.”
- What do experts think about mandatory universal masking in public places?
There is a growing scientific and political consensus that wearing a mask is desirable in health care settings, on public transit, grocery stores, restaurants, shopping centres and other crowded places with poor ventilation. Doing so is recommended by public health officials and, as the economy opens up, many stores are making face-covering a condition of entering. Masks are mandatory in 31 U.S. states and a number of European and Asian countries. So far, there is no indication the federal or provincial governments intend to make masks mandatory. It is seen more an act of civic engagement than a legal obligation.
- Reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2
Ultimately, the amount of ventilation, number of people, how long one visits an indoor facility, and activities that affect air flow will all modulate viral transmission pathways and exposure (10). For these reasons, it is important to wear properly fitted masks indoors even when 6 ft apart. Airborne transmission could account, in part, for the high secondary transmission rates to medical staff, as well as major outbreaks in nursing facilities…
it is particularly important to wear masks in locations with conditions that can accumulate high concentrations of viruses, such as health care settings, airplanes, restaurants, and other crowded places with reduced ventilation.
- Wear masks in crowded places to combat coronavirus, World Health Organisation finally advises the public
the Secret to Japan’s Virus Success Right in Front of Its Face?
During the current pandemic, scientists have found a correlation between high levels of mask-wearing — whether as a matter of culture or policy — and success in containing the virus…
The scientific evidence on whether a mask protects the wearer from infection is mixed. But experiments show that masks can be effective in blocking the emission of respiratory droplets that may contain the virus, even when someone has no symptoms of illness. And there is some evidence that infected people with no symptoms can still transmit the coronavirus.
- Face Masks Against COVID-19: An Evidence Review
Our review of the literature offers evidence in favor of widespread mask use as source control to reduce community transmission: non-medical masks use materials that obstruct droplets of the necessary size; people are most infectious in the initial period post-infection, where it is common to have few or no symptoms (10–16); non-medical masks have been effective in reducing transmission of influenza; and places and time periods where mask usage is required or widespread have shown substantially lower community transmission…
Models suggest that public mask wearing is most effective at reducing spread of the virus when compliance is high (96). We recommend that mask use requirements are implemented
by governments, or when governments do not, by organizations that provide public-facing services, such as transit service providers or stores, as “no mask, no service” rules.
- When 511 Epidemiologists Expect to Fly, Hug and Do 18 Other Everyday Activities Again
They mostly agreed that outdoor activities and small groups were safer than being indoors or in a crowd, and that masks would be necessary for a long time…
A majority said it would be more than a year before they stopped routinely wearing a mask outside their homes.
- Canadians increasingly wearing face masks, fear second wave of COVID-19: poll
And 53 per cent – up two points – said masks should be mandatory in public and confined spaces, like shopping malls and public transit.
- How to keep a cloth face mask clean amid coronavirus – wash it, don’t touch it, throw damaged ones away
- Why Are So Many N.Y.P.D. Officers Refusing to Wear Masks at Protests?
- Jurors, Please Remove Your Masks: Courtrooms Confront the Pandemic: This article shows that mask wearing does deeply affect our society in ways that we have never seen before.
- Ontario docs sign petition
- The most effective weapon in the war on COVID-19 is as plain as the mask on your face, U.S. researchers find
- Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of COVID-19
Our analysis reveals that the difference with and without mandated face covering represents the determinant in shaping the trends of the pandemic. This protective measure significantly reduces the number of infections. Other mitigation measures, such as social distancing implemented in the United States, are insufficient by themselves in protecting the public.
- Across the world, face masks are becoming mandatory. Why not in the UK?
- Our masked future: An interesting article on the past, present and possible future of mask wearing
- Guidance against wearing masks for the coronavirus is wrong – you should cover your face
- Yes, it’s time to make masks mandatory
- IZA DP No. 13319: Face Masks Considerably Reduce COVID-19 Cases in Germany: A Synthetic Control Method Approach
We indeed find strong and convincing statistical support for the general perception that public wearing of face masks in Jena strongly reduced the number of incidences… Our findings indicate that the early introduction of face masks in Jena has resulted in a reduction of almost 25% in the cumulative number of reported Covid-19 cases after 20 days. The drop is greatest, larger than 50%, for the age group 60 years and above…
We believe that the reduction in the growth rates of infections by 40% to 60% is our best estimate of the effects of face masks…
- Children don’t need to wear masks or follow strict social distancing when they return to school: SickKids experts
- How do I know when it’s time to buy a new mask? A public health doctor answers
- South Carolina and Florida Set Record Highs for Daily Cases — Again
Then on Friday, AMC reversed itself, saying it had consulted with scientific advisers and would require masks in theaters nationwide when it reopens on July 15.
“This announcement prompted an intense and immediate outcry from our customers, and it is clear from this response that we did not go far enough on the usage of masks,” the company said in a statement.
Alamo Drafthouse Cinema also said on Friday that it would require face masks in its theaters, saying the safety of patrons and workers could not be compromised.
- The battle over masks in a pandemic: An all-American story
Now it’s masks and the coronavirus, with face coverings emerging as an emblem for what cleaves the nation. A flurry of recent studies supports wearing cloth face coverings as a means to limit transmission of the novel coronavirus, which causes the illness covid-19. To many people, masks represent adherence to civic duty and a willingness to make individual sacrifices for the greater good of public health. To others, masks symbolize government overreach and a violation of personal liberty.
- Spate of new research supports wearing masks to control coronavirus spread
“Our findings suggest, in multiple ways, that the use of masks is highly protective in health-care and community settings,” said the author of the review, Holger Schünemann, an epidemiologist and physician at McMaster University in Ontario…
“Anecdotally, it appears that face-mask use is an important control against multiple modes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission,” including droplets and aerosols, said Jeffrey Shaman, an epidemiologist at Columbia University.
- In countries keeping the coronavirus at bay, experts watch U.S. case numbers with alarm
Regarding the effectiveness of face masks, Lauterbach added, “we almost entirely relied on U.S. studies.” Germany was among the first major European countries to make face masks mandatory on public transport and in supermarkets.
- face masks save lives, Japanese study says
- Make masks mandatory in Toronto stores? Mayor now says he’s open to the idea
- Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
- Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks
Reduction of secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in households by face mask use, disinfection and social distancing: a cohort study in Beijing, China
- Four things Canada needs to keep the economy open, and the virus contained
The message about masks needs to be clear and simple. It needs to be a rule, not one more bit of vague advice. Public-health authorities in each province, and at the local level, should have the power to order masking in public places, and to lift those orders when and where risks are low.
- ‘Wear a mask’: Some Republican leaders break with Trump as COVID-19 cases surge
- Why is Canada dragging its feet on mandatory masks?
- What To Look For In A Face Mask, According To Science
- Performance of fabrics for home-made masks against spread of respiratory infection through droplets: a quantitative mechanistic study
We found that most home fabrics substantially block droplets,even as a single layer. With two layers, blocking performance can reach that of surgical mask without significantly compromising breathability. Furthermore, we observed that home fabrics are hydrophilic to varying degrees, and hence soak water. In contrast, medical masks are hydrophobic, and tend to repel water. Incoming droplets are thus soaked and “held back” by home fabrics, which might offer an as of yet untapped and understudied advantage of home-made cloth masks. Overall, our study suggests that most double-layered cloth face coverings may help reduce droplet transmission of respiratory infections.
- Group led by Canadian doctors and scientists calls for mandatory face mask use in indoor spaces
- Fighting Over Masks in Public Is the New American Pastime
- Refusing to Wear a Mask Is Like Driving Drunk
- Amid Virus Surge, Republicans Abruptly Urge Masks Despite Trump’s Resistance
- What we know – and don’t know – about masks
- More riders, less distancing and a $195 fine for no mask: The TTC’s next recovery phase starts Thursday
- Masks are now mandatory. Here’s some tips for how to deal with that
- Trevor Noah Covers Outrageous Coronavirus Mask Infractions
- Masks And The Outdoor Exerciser: Advice For Runners, Bikers, Walkers, Hikers
- For Doug Ford, political science trumps medical science when it comes to masks on transit: TTC mandates face masks, but regional operator GO and UPLink does not. This makes no sense.
- The Science of Mask-Wearing Hasn’t Changed. So Why Have Our Expectations?
- How Masks Went From Don’t-Wear to Must-Have: Public health messaging and science have to work hard to stay in sync during a crisis. During the Covid-19 pandemic, they haven’t always succeeded.